Bias tees are an important tool for many applications including vector network analysis. As accurate understanding and modeling of power electronic components becomes increasingly important for the study of their electromagnetic emissions, so do broadband measurements with bias tees. This paper describes the composition of such a special bias tee in terms of the necessary geometries and circuitry.
On the 15th anniversary of his career in international product approvals, the author looks back on what has changed and what has remained the same in the global product approval process.
Hipot (“high potential”) electrical safety testers produce high voltage to perform dielectric withstand and insulation resistance tests. This article discusses the safety considerations and capabilities of modern hipot testers that utilize electronic source technology to assess compliance with IEC-61010.
The history and insight into how the EMC specifications and procedures evolved at one automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Other present-day OEM specifications are more similar than different mostly due to the extensive reference to international standards which these OEMs have taken part in developing (e.g., EMC committees). Knowing this history should help today’s EMC practitioners, especially those new to the discipline, gain some insight into the implementation and limitations of test procedures and when to be flexible in analyzing test results.
The ubiquitous increase in the use of mains power switching devices has been paralleled by the increase in nuisance tripping of GFCIs and other protection devices. Nuisance tripping can be identified to contain such high frequency signals and these must be properly taken into account when designing proper GFCI operation in this environment.
EV batteries and battery packs are complex systems, requiring a comprehensive design and testing strategy to help ensure safe and efficient electrical power.
EMC testing laboratories often have limitations (limited availability, lead times, etc.) that can make it difficult to obtain timely results from routine troubleshooting. Inexpensive test equipment can support efficient and economical in-house EMC troubleshooting.
As they become more commonplace in today’s motor vehicles, advanced driver assist systems (ADAS) require a unique set of testing procedures that include repeatability of the trigger mechanism in a safe, controlled environment to accurately measure their effectiveness.
Industrial human-robot collaborative systems must be validated thoroughly with regard to safety. Due to the complexity of robot systems, safety ﬂaws often stay hidden, especially at early design stages, when a physical implementation is not yet available for testing. Simulation-based testing is a possible way to identify hazards in an early stage.
A fully functional ESD floor prevents static generation and provides an effective path to ground for personnel and equipment. Many conductive and dissipative floors meet STM 7.1 resistance parameters in ANSI/ESD S20.20 but fail to provide adequate electrical contact for grounding equipment with conductive casters and drag chains.