Fundamentals

Resource articles covering basic electrical and compliance engineering concepts, theory and application, historical references, and general information.

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The Grounding Symbols

With the various markings available to identify ground terminals, how do you know which specific symbol should be used? The international standards ar... Read More...
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A Regulatory Roadmap: That’s Just Regulations… Right?

Pressure to get product to market is stressful, as well as full of scenarios that most engineers and designers would like to forget about. Yet in the beehive of activity, the regulations that a product must comply with are critical to those design engineers, as well as other teams. So much, in fact, that a slight misstep early on or during the product life cycle can create devastating circumstances. Driven by market or other business issues some may succumb to the “limp factor” (LF): get it to work and ship at all costs for the first country or countries of use and worry about the others at a later time when the pressure is off. So, how can we prevent the LF from occurring?

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Fundamentals of Electrostatic Discharge: Part 5: Device Sensitivity and Testing

In Part 2 of this series we indicated that a key element in a successful static control program was the identification of those items (components, assemblies and finished products) that are sensitive to ESD and the level of their sensitivity. Damage to an ESDS device by the ESD event is determined by the device’s ability to dissipate the energy of the discharge or withstand the current levels involved. This is known as device “ESD sensitivity” or “ESD susceptibility.”

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EMC in Military Equipment

Military EMC design can be particularly vexing. Multiple environments combined with multiple threats lead to multiple requirements. The threat levels, and the resulting requirements, are usually more stringent than found in the commercial world.

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