Users Guide to Hipot Testing

Hipot (“high potential”) electrical safety testers produce high voltage to perform dielectric withstand and insulation resistance tests. This article discusses the safety considerations and capabilities of modern hipot testers that utilize electronic source technology to assess compliance with IEC-61010.

Evolution and Analysis of EMC Specifications at a Major Automotive OEM

The history and insight into how the EMC specifications and procedures evolved at one automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Other present-day OEM specifications are more similar than different mostly due to the extensive reference to international standards which these OEMs have taken part in developing (e.g., EMC committees). Knowing this history should help today’s EMC practitioners, especially those new to the discipline, gain some insight into the implementation and limitations of test procedures and when to be flexible in analyzing test results.

Exploring the Necessity of the Hot Hipot Test

Naturally, the mere mention of the more specific Hot Hipot test can bring about feelings of apprehension. Yet the concepts involved with the Hot Hipot test don’t have to be entirely elusive to operator and engineer alike. In fact, with a basic understanding of a Hipot test setup, it is relatively easy to understand, implement, and perform a Hot Hipot test.

Assessing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Vehicles

As they become more commonplace in today’s motor vehicles, advanced driver assist systems (ADAS) require a unique set of testing procedures that include repeatability of the trigger mechanism in a safe, controlled environment to accurately measure their effectiveness.

Simulation-Based Testing for Early Safety Validation of Robot Systems

Industrial human-robot collaborative systems must be validated thoroughly with regard to safety. Due to the complexity of robot systems, safety flaws often stay hidden, especially at early design stages, when a physical implementation is not yet available for testing. Simulation-based testing is a possible way to identify hazards in an early stage.

Toward Standardization of Low Impedance Contact CDM

The 16.6 ohm implementation of contact CDM (LICCDM) recently published in ANSI-ESD Standard Practice 5.3.3 is shown to produce waveforms of similar shape, Ifail, and Ipeak vs. Ceff dependency as JS-002. The non-monotonicity of JS-002 at low voltages is overcome using LICCDM. A path to joint standardization with air discharge testing is proposed.

Caster Contact: The Achilles Heel of ESD Floors

A fully functional ESD floor prevents static generation and provides an effective path to ground for personnel and equipment. Many conductive and dissipative floors meet STM 7.1 resistance parameters in ANSI/ESD S20.20 but fail to provide adequate electrical contact for grounding equipment with conductive casters and drag chains.