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Differential Mode to Common Mode Conversion on Differential Signal Vias Due to Asymmetric GND Via Configurations

1406 F3 coverThis article investigates the impact of ground vias placed in close proximity to high speed differential signal vias and the resulting differential mode to common mode conversion. The work shows the influence of the distance between ground (GND) vias and differential signal (Diff. SIG.); the effect of the asymmetrical configuration of the GND vias; the impact of the dielectric thickness and the number of transitions between the planes.

Failure Analysis: A Road Map

Although the foundation of a failure analysis is rooted in science, there is also an art to completing one, successfully. The path from problem discovery to problem solution has many bumps and twists along the way. This article will hopefully help guide you on that journey.

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Making Real Boards

The board stackup is probably the most essential piece for ensuring a successful PCB design. Modern high-speed busses require controlled-impedance traces, and whether you are using a simulation tool, a simple calculator, or the back of a napkin, you need to understand your manufacturing process to correlate your impedance calculations. This ensures that your trace widths and dielectric heights match what will actually be manufactured, and eliminates last-minute design changes.

 

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Decreased CDM Ratings for ESD-Sensitive Devices in Printed Circuit Boards

Many sources recently have reported that electrical failures to components previously classified as EOS (Electrical Overstress) are instead the result of ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) failures due to charged-board events (CBE) [1,2]. A charged printed circuit board assembly stores substantially more charge than a discrete device as its capacitance is larger. A subsequent discharge of the board assembly results in increased current for that event - versus that of the discrete component. Consequently, a device’s CDM (charged device model) rating is lowered when mounted in a printed circuit board (PCB). In an attempt to get a feel for just how much it is lowered, we conducted CDM stress tests on components in discrete form, and again after insertion into larger and larger sized pc boards. We found that the CDM ratings are lowered dramatically!