System-Level Grounding

Grounding is often viewed from separate points of view - safety, ESD, or EMI.  This article combines all these aspects together so that practitioners can address grounding at the factories and in the laboratories in a comprehensive way.
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The 25-Amp Grounding Impedance Test

High-current grounding impedance tests have been specified in safety standards for many years. There are two, independent sources for these tests.
1407 TS fig1

The Hazards of Multiple Grounding

One of my colleagues has a desk drawer full of I/O boards that have been burned quite severely. Why did they burn? The I/O boards are in energy-limited SELV circuits. There should be no possibility of fire. ... Read More...

Things You May Not Have Heard About Lightning and Grounds

When we think of grounding systems, we tend to think only of resistance and how resistance can be reduced. But the things we do to lower resistance may increase inductance, which could actually make matters worse, especially for fast-rising secondary surges.

The Grounding Symbols

With the various markings available to identify ground terminals, how do you know which specific symbol should be used? The international standards are the right place to go for guidance, and this column will o... Read More...