Lightning damage to equipment with a metallic (wired) connection to a communications service has been studied for many years, resulting in a series of Telcordia GR, ATIS and TIA standards in the United States, and ITU-T recommendations elsewhere.
This article is the second in our ongoing series about batteries. This installment provides an overview of lithium-ion batteries – typical properties, principal applications, and trends.
The development of “digital common-mode noise” within circuit devices and subsequently within circuit boards is initially formed by peak over-shoot and under-shoot currents in the power and return planes. The peak currents are attributable to the “cross-conduction” transitions in circuit devices, where the driver literally segments turning “on” before the pull-down drivers turn “off”.
An Industry Council on ESD Target Levels was established in 2006 when a few IC companies decided to understand why during the product qualification process at every corporation, passing the ESD test is a frequent bottleneck for customer acceptance.
This document provides estimates of future ESD device thresholds and their potential impact on ESD control practices. The threshold estimates reflect the prevailing trends in semiconductor technology as viewed by selected industry leaders. These projections are intended to provide a view of future device protection limitations driven by performance requirements and technology scaling. It also provides a common view of expected performance for device suppliers and users. Finally, these trends point to the need for continued improvements in ESD control procedures and compliance.