With the increasing sophistication of electronic warfare and cyberattacks, it is critical to develop and implement effective cyber defense strategies to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of satellite systems. This article will explore the various test methods and techniques that will be used to protect satellites from electronic warfare and cyberattacks.
This article reflects on the recent drafting of a European circular product standard, the publication of EN4555X material efficiency standards, and some specific international and national standards. This standardization activity is spearheading thinking on resource efficiency, and the requirements of these standards could soon find their way into future EU ecodesign laws.
Leakage or touch current tests for electrical shock protection is mandated by safety standards in the process of issuing a safety certification for various electrical products. In this article, electrical shock sensation experiments were conducted for a complex waveform composed of a combination of 60 Hz and a higher frequency sinusoidal signal.
Recalls can create huge problems for manufacturers and product sellers. They can generate new product liability lawsuits that are harder to defend, involve a significant financial cost to implement, and create reputational problems with consumers and retailers. Manufacturers must carefully design a recall or other corrective action that is as effective as possible and adequate under the circumstances. Various government entities are issuing new requirements that can help with these efforts.
This column describes the operation of an ideal difference amplifier. It is shown that an ideal difference amplifier (with no resistance mismatches) eliminates the common mode portion of the input voltage and amplifies only the differential mode portion of the input voltage.
Solving EMI problems isn’t only about ensuring that a product can meet EMC regulations and standards (although it’s a significant part of the job). Another crucial reason for addressing EMI issues is to enhance product reliability, especially when a product operates in public or industrial areas where there are many different types of noise sources.