Product standards, such as IEC 62368‑1 for ITC equipment, struggle to keep up with technology changes, even when they are designed to be adaptable – such as this hazard-based standard. Unexpected consequences can develop with the introduction of disruptive technology that takes advantage of a seeming loophole in a standard and move forward without getting a full evaluation under the standard. Fault managed power systems, such as PoE, push the standard in getting proper evaluation. This paper is a case study including a detailed proposal as to how to address an issue such as this within the standard.
Manufacturers should understand product liability law and consider it pre-sale when they design and manufacture their products and after sale when they deal with potential product safety problems reported to them by consumers. Doing so will result in safer products and, if there is a lawsuit, a better defense.
This is the second of the three tutorial articles devoted to the frequency-domain analysis of a lossless transmission line. This article shows numerous methods of calculating the voltage, current, and input impedance at various locations on the transmission line, using the Circuit Model.
Although most modern RF amplifiers have a high voltage device rating against impedance mismatch, special care is needed to prevent impedance mismatch. To avoid impedance mismatch of the power amplifier, often an attenuator is also recommended to be connected between the output of the power amplifier and the flying probe.
Antennas come in all shapes and sizes and can be used for both radiating and receiving. Selecting a good receiving antenna for emissions testing is not difficult if you take some necessary items into account.
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