The compliance world was shaken up in 2005 with the realization that the European Union was enacting legislation that would require manufacturers wishing to sell their electrical or electronic products in the EU to reduce the environmental impact of these products through design. The practice of eco design was to be enshrined in Law and many companies who would not normally have considered the environmental impact of their products now faced the prospect of being legally obliged to do so. Since the introduction of this legislation, in the form of the Energy using Products Directive, industry has been monitoring its phased implementation to see to what degree the requirements will affect their designs. Following a summary of the scope and major features of the legislation, this article will review the latest developments in the implementation process and give an overview of the emerging design requirements. It will go on to discuss the important areas of conformity assessment, market surveillance and enforcement and conclude by looking at possible future developments and discuss to what degree the legislation fulfils the goal of reducing environmental impacts.
In the preceding chapters we have derived Maxwell’s Equations and expressed them in their “integral” and “differential” form. In different ways, both forms lend themselves to a certain intuitive understanding of the nature of electromagnetic fields and waves. In this installment, we will express Maxwell’s Equations in their “computational form,” a form that allows our computers to do the work.
Trade is the basis for international peace and goodwill. The community of nations that form the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) works to facilitate economic growth, trade and cooperation. By bringing together common interests, APEC creates opportunities for its twenty-one member nations in all sectors of the member nations’ economies.