Seebeck Coefficient

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The voltage built up when a small temperature gradient is applied to a material, and when the material has come to a steady state where the current density is zero everywhere. If the temperature difference ΔT between the two ends of a material is small, then the Seebeck coefficient of a material is defined as:
{\displaystyle S=-{\Delta V \over \Delta T}}
where ΔV is the thermoelectric voltage seen at the terminals.

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