This is the first article of a threearticle series devoted to the correlation between the insertion loss and input impedance of passive EMC filters. In this article, we focus on LC and CL filters. Based on the analysis, simulation, and measurement results, it has been observed that the frequencies where the insertion losses of the filters are equal are also the frequencies where the input impedances are equal. These frequencies define the regions where one filter configuration outperforms the other (with respect to the insertion loss). To determine these regions analytically, we compare the input impedances of the two filters. Subsequent articles will focus on π and T filters and cascaded LC and CL configurations.
1. Insertion Loss Definition
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.
Insertion loss of a filter can be defined as
(1a)
where V_{L} is the magnitude of the complex voltage _{L} . Since V_{L,without filter} > V_{L,with filter} the insertion loss defined by Eq. (1a) is a positive number in dB. The insertion loss could alternatively be defined as [1],
(1b)
In this case, the insertion loss in dB is the negative of the loss defined in Eq. (1b). We will use this definition when plotting the simulation results and comparing the simulation results to the VNA measurements.
2. Input Impedance to the LC Filter
The input impedance, _{IN}, to the LC filter is calculated from the circuit shown in Figure 2.
(2a)
or
(2b)
or, in terms of the frequency
(3a)
The magnitude of the input
impedance is
(3b)
3. Input Impedance to the CL Filter
The input impedance, _{IN}, to the CL filter is calculated from the circuit shown in Figure 3.
(4a)
or
(4b)
or, in terms of the frequency
(5a)
The magnitude of the input impedance is
(5b)
4. LC Filter vs. CL Filter – Input Impedance – Simulations and Calculations
Figure 4 shows the simulation circuit used for the comparison of input impedances.
The simulation results are shown in Figure 5.
Note that the two input impedances are equal at the frequency of 1.0349 MHz. Figure 5 also shows the resonant frequency of the LC filter at 733.16 kHz. This result is confirmed by the calculations in Equation 6.
(6)
Next, let’s calculate the frequency at which the input impedances of the two filters are equal. Equating the expressions in equations (3b) and (5b) produces
(7)
This equation can be solved for ω, [2], resulting in
(8a)
or
(8b)
Which agrees with the simulation result shown in Figure 5.
5. LC Filter vs. CL Filter – Insertion Loss – Simulations and Measurements
Figure 6 shows the simulation circuit used for the comparison of insertion losses.
The simulation results are shown in Figure 7.
The insertion losses of the two filters are equal at the frequency of 1.04 MHz. This is the same frequency at which the input impedances of the two filters were equal! Note that up to the frequency of 1.04 MHz the insertion loss of an CL filter is larger (in the absolute sense) than that of the LC filter. Beyond that frequency the insertion loss of the LC filter is larger. This means that the LC filter is more effective than the CL filter beyond the frequency of 1.04 MHz.
We have arrived at a very important observation: once the filter components values L and C are chosen, we can determine the frequency at which the insertion losses of LC and CL filters are equal. This is the frequency at which the input impedances are equal and given by Eq. (8b).
To verify the simulations results of the insertion loss the measurement setup shown in Figure 8 was used.
The measurement results are shown in Figure 9.
Note that the measurement results agree with the calculated and simulated results.
References
 Bogdan Adamczyk and Dimitri Haring, “EMC Filters Comparison Part I: CL and LC Filters,” In Compliance Magazine, December 2019.
 Bogdan Adamczyk, Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility: Laboratory Exercises with Lectures, Wiley, 2024.
Dr. Bogdan Adamczyk is professor and director of the EMC Center at Grand Valley State University (http://www.gvsu.edu/emccenter) where he performs EMC educational research and regularly teaches EMC certificate courses for industry. He is an iNARTE certified EMC Master Design Engineer. He is the author of the textbook “Foundations of Electromagnetic Compatibility with Practical Applications” (Wiley, 2017) and the upcoming textbook “Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility: Laboratory Exercises and Lectures” (Wiley, 2024). He has been writing this column since January 2017. He can be reached at adamczyb@gvsu.edu. 

Jake Timmerman is an EMC Engineer at E3 Compliance, which specializes in EMC & SIPI design, simulation, precompliance testing, and diagnostics. He received his B.S.E in Electrical Engineering from Grand Valley State University. Jake participates in the industrial collaboration with GVSU at the EMC Center. He can be reached at jacob.timmerman@e3compliance.com. 