Africa Wireless and Telecom Compliance: Part 2 – The Next Twenty Most Populated Countries

“If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go further, go together.” – African Proverb

Comprised of over fifty countries, Africa represents a largely untapped market, as these nations seek to expand and modernize their economies. China has been leading the way for international trading partners that are joining forces with African countries to build large-scale infrastructure projects such as dams, clean water supplies, power supply generating plants, and upgraded telecommunications systems, which will help to raise the standard of living and access to modern communications and information technology equipment (ITE) technologies that will drive the growth of local businesses.

1511_F4_africa

International companies wanting to enter these markets will want to perform formal risk analysis, to make sure the potential benefits are greater than the possible risks for each country in this continent. There are still countries in Africa with active civil conflict or border disputes with their regional neighbors, and a few have U.S. trade embargoes in place that prevent the importation of products from U.S. companies. Some countries are further along the path to becoming politically stable and ensuring financial stability for their citizens than others, so it would be wise to be selective in choosing the markets that make the most sense for each company, based on their products and size of the potential customer base.

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook website,[1] referenced at the end of this article, is a useful tool for examining the various economic, political, societal, and infrastructure attributes that can be very valuable in assessing potential markets. In fact, this public domain site is the source for data in this article concerning the economies and infrastructure of these African countries, as well as the maps and flag images. A lot of companies also find it very useful to hire a consultant that has current knowledge of the laws, requirements, and restraints on the importation and sales of electronic products in this region, as well as finding compliance lab partners to assist with the formal product submittal test reports and submittal process.

There are a few African countries that have well-developed programs at government agencies to handle the approval and certification of products. However, the majority are less developed, and carry a higher level of uncertainty, as political unrest and civil disturbances can cause interruptions and delays in the process when governments are turned over or agencies abolished and reformed. Most of the less developed countries have requirements for only wireless and telecom approvals, so that helps to lessen the complexity of obtaining product approvals the market countries with smaller populations.

In the previous Part 1 of this article, we looked at the ten largest countries in Africa, in terms of population. In Part 2, we will now look at the next twenty largest African nations.

Please note that you should not rely exclusively on the information presented here. This article is only intended to identify the major regulatory agencies for electronic and electrical product regulatory product approvals for the countries covered here, and to provide an overview of the specific compliance requirements for each country. Also, changes to the specific certification criteria and programs are common, as are updates to the international test standards utilized by most agencies. Only the official standards and laws for each country should be referenced when preparing product submittals.

If you don’t have expertise on the laws and trade requirements for these countries within your own company, then you should procure the services of experienced regulatory compliance and legal consultants to prepare and submit these applications for product approvals, to protect the company from possible legal problems or the confiscation of your imported products.

 Morocco

The people of Morocco were part of the Arab Spring pro-democracy movement that started in 2011, and have experienced some moderate reforms within their country that were granted by the ruling monarchy. They have been working towards opening up their markets, and their location as the closest African country to Europe is helping this effort. This country of over 32 million people has the 11th largest population in Africa. Morocco’s GDP-PPP is ranked 57th in the world, ranks 28th in the number of Internet users, and 31st in the number of cell phones, showing that it has one of the most tech-savvy populations in this region.

The Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Telecommunications (ANRT), or the National Agency for the Regulation of Telecommunications, is the telecom authority of Morocco. They accept either the EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC, or the FCC grant and test reports, as proof of compliance for the importation of electronic products. ANRT defines the requirements for wireless and telecom products, and reserves the right to review or reject any application that might interfere with protected frequencies, such as those for emergency or military uses, or products that might cause degradation to their telephone telecommunications infrastructure. Typically, they do not ask for product samples as part of the approval process; however, a local representative is required in-country.

There is an English-language version of the ANRT website available (www.anrt.net.ma/en), although the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight, and French is the unofficial language of commerce and diplomacy. This website allows access to the regulations and application procedures for telecom and wireless products requiring certification and approvals, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, cellular and satellite phones, and telephone terminal equipment (TTE). Certificates are normally valid for ten years, but they do require an update submittal any time the product is substantially changed.

Ghana

After a period of military rule, this country has held multiparty elections since 1992. Ghana has a GDP-PPP rank of 80, exporting oil, gold, cocoa, minerals, and agricultural products. With a population of 26 million. They have a global ranking of 42 in the number of cell phones, and 91 in Internet users.

 

Ghana’s telecom agency is the National Communications Authority (NCA), and they define the certification requirements for wired TTE and wireless technology products. The NCA accepts both EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and FCC test reports and grants as proof of compliance. This agency does not require a local representative, test samples, or NCA product marks. Certificates do not expire, but must be updated if any critical components in product are changed. The NCA has an English-language website (www.nca.org.gh) with more information on their legal framework, licensing, and other projects.

Mozambique

Mozambique became independent in 1975, after almost 500 years as a colony of Portugal. In 1990 a new constitution brought democratic elections and helped to open up their economy. This country of 25 million has a GDP-PPP rank of 127, exporting aluminum, seafood, agricultural products, timber, and generated electricity. They rank 91st in the number of cell phones, and 111th in the number of Internet users.

Instituto Nacional das Comunicações de Moçambique (INCM), or the National Institute of Communications for Mozambique, is the telecom agency for this country. FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC are accepted as proof of compliance for wireless and TTE products. INCM does not require product test samples or regulatory marking of the product, but they do require an in-country authorized local representative. The INCM website is in Portuguese (www.incm.gov.mz), which is their official language. Certificates do not expire, as long as there are no changes to the product’s critical components.

Madagascar

Madagascar has held free presidential and national assembly elections since 1992, with some political instability arising over a contested election in 2001. This island nation of almost 24 million is currently ranked at 120th for GDP-PPP, with exports of agricultural products, seafood, minerals, and petroleum products. They are ranked 89th in the number of cell phones, and 124th in the number of Internet users.

 

The L’Autorite de Regulation des Technologies de Communication (ARTEC), or the Regulatory Authority for Communications Technologies, is the government agency for telecom TTE and wireless product certifications. ARTEC requires a local representative as well as product samples, but they do not require regulatory label marks. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance by this agency. ARTEC certificates have no expiry date, as long as the product is not modified from the approved design. The ARTEC website is in their official French language (www.artec.mg), which provides more information on the regulations and certification requirements.

Cameroon

Cameroon has had a constitutional federal government since 1972, and have been a stable country. The have a GDP-PPP ranking of 96, with the majority of their exports being oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, and cotton. They have almost 24 million inhabitants, making them the 15th most populated country in Africa, and are ranked 64th in the number of cell phones, and 104th in the number of Internet users.

 

Agence de Régulation des Télécommunications (ART), or the Regulatory Agency for Telecommunications, is the telecom authority of Senegal. Either the EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC, or the FCC grant and test reports, are accepted as proof of compliance for the importation and sell of products. They do not ask for product samples when submitting an application for approval; however, a local representative is required. There is an English-language version of the ART website available www.art.cm), although French is the official language. This website allows access to the regulatory activities and publications for telecom and wireless products requiring certification and approvals. Certificates are valid for five years, and should be renewed if the approved product will continue to be sold in Cameroon after this time period.

Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

Since 1999 this country has been the scene of multiple military coups and political instability. In fact, thousands of UN peacekeeping forces have been deployed throughout the country since 2011, helping to support the new president in rebuilding the infrastructure and economy, so they can manage their own security once the peacekeepers are gone. Cote d’Ivoire’s 23 million residents have a GDP-PPP ranked at 92, and rank 49th in the number of cell phones, and 101st in the number of Internet users.

Cote d’Ivoire has specific U.S. government sanctions in place that are targeted at individuals and organizations associated with former regimes and violent groups, or those that present a significant threat of violent acts, which could disrupt the peace and stability for the residents and government. [2] A full listing of the specific individuals and organizations can be found on the OFAC Specially Designated Nationals List webpage. [3]

These sanctions prohibit the trade or sell of certain dual-use technologies, which are products that perform either military or non-military applications. To determine if a product will require an U.S. Department of Commerce export license, first determine the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) for the product, and then access the Commerce Control List (CCL) posted in the Bureau of Industry and Security section of the Department of Commerce website. [4] The ECCN is an alpha-numeric code that designates the product and specifies the licensing requirements. For example, for an ECCN code of “3A001,” “3” would place it in the “electronics” category, and the “A” would place it in the “systems, equipment, and components” group, and “001” would give the specific type within that group.

 

Autorité de Régulation des Télécommunications/TIC de Côte d”Ivoire (ARTCI), or the Authority for Regulations of Telecommunications and ITE of the Ivory Coast, is the telecom agency for this country that certifies TTE and wireless products. This agency requires an in-country authorized representative as well as product samples, but they do not require agency product marks. Either FCC grants and test reports, or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. ARTCI certificates are valid for five years, as long as the product is unchanged. ARTCI has an English-language version of their website (www.atci.ci) with more information on the program requirements and agency activities, although the official language of this country is French.

Angola

Angola had twenty-five years on internal violence and conflict prior to 2002, which are estimated to have caused up to 1.5 million deaths and the displacement of 4 million people. A new constitution was instituted in 2010, with democratic elections following in 2012, as the country works to rebuild their infrastructure and society. This country of almost 20 million has a GDP-PPP rank of 65, with major export commodities of oil and petroleum products, diamonds, seafood, and agricultural products. Angola has a global ranking of 80 in the number of cell phones, and 112th in Internet users.

 

The Instituto Angolano das Comunicações (INACOM), or the Angola Institute of Communications, is the government agency for telecom TTE and wireless product certifications. INACOM does not require a local representative or product samples, and they accept FCC or CE product label regulatory marks. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance by this agency. INACOM certificates do not have an expiry date, as long as the product is not modified from the approved design. The INACOM website is in their official language of Portuguese (www.inacom.gov.ao), which provides more information on the regulations and certification requirements.

Burkina Faso

After two decades of military takeovers during the 1970s and 1980s, Burkina Faso has held multiparty elections since the beginning of the 1990s. There are few natural resources in this country of almost 19 million, with a GDP-PPP is ranking is 124, with exports of gold and agriculture products. They rank 79th in the world for the number of cell phones, and 140th in the number of Internet users.

The Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques (ARCE), or Regulatory Authority for Electronic Communications, is the government agency for telecom and wireless product certifications. ARCE does not require product samples or their own regulatory mark on the product, but they do require a local representative in-country. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. ARCE certificates do not have an expiry date, and resubmittals are not required as long as the approved product is not modified. This agency has a French-language website (www.arcep.bf) which provides more information on their programs and certification requirements.

Niger

This country has experienced decades of political and civil unrest, with military coups and counter-coups, resulting in a very poor country with a GDP-PPP rank of 147. With a population of over 18 million, their economy is dependent on uranium and agriculture exports. Niger is ranked 107th in the number of cell phones, and 151st in the number of Internet users.

 

The L’Autorité de Régulation des Télécommunications et de la Poste (ARTP), or Authority for Regulation of Telecom and Posts is the telecom certification agency for Niger, for wired and wireless products. The ARTP accepts both EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and FCC test reports and grants as proof of compliance. The ARTP does not require a local representative, test samples, or product marks. Certificates do not expire, but must be updated if any critical components in product are changed. The ARTP has a French-language website (www.armniger.org) with more information on their allocated frequency spectrum and approvals requirements.

Malawi

Malawi became a democracy in 1994, and has experienced two decades of relative stability, but with some political issues and government mismanagement. They have the 20th largest population of the African countries, with over 18 million residents. Their GDP-PPP is ranking is 152, with an economy heavily dependent on agriculture. Malawi is ranked 117th in the number of cell phones, and 107th in the number of Internet users.

 

The Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority (MACRA) is the agency for telecom and wireless product certifications. MACRA requires a local representative, but does not require product samples. The FCC or CE label marks can be used on the product, instead of a special MACRA marking. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. MACRA certificates don’t expire, as long as the product remains unchanged. This agency has an English-language website (www.macra.org.mw) which provides more information on the agency policies, regulations, and publications.

Mali

Mali became a democracy in 1991, and experienced two decades of relative stability until internal conflict resulted in a military coup in 2012. An international military coalition intervened in 2013 to quell tensions, and a democratic presidential election was held in mid-2013. The current government is working to rebuild their infrastructure, modernize their utilities, and grow their economy. Their GDP-PPP is ranking is 131 with a population of over 16 million, and their economy is dependent on gold mining and agriculture exports. Mali is ranked 59th in the number of cell phones, and 132nd in the number of Internet users.

 

The Autorité Malienne de Régulation des Télécommunications/TIC es Postes (AMRTP), or Regulatory Authority for Telecom, ITE, and Posts, is the government agency for telecom and wireless product certifications. This is a voluntary requirement, which some companies obtain for marketing reasons, such as government agencies in Mali giving preference to products that have obtained this approval. AMRTP requires product samples to be submitted with the application, and also requires a local representative, but they do not require their own regulatory mark on the product. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. AMRTP certificates are valid for five years, as long as the product remains unchanged. This agency has a French-language website (www.amrtp-mali.org ) which provides more information on the program and certification requirements.

Zambia

For the past decade Zambia has enjoyed political stability, with open democratic elections. This nation of 15 million has a GDP-PPP rank of 100th, with exports of metals, minerals, generated electricity, and agricultural products. They rank 76th in the world for the number of cell phones, and 103rd in the number of Internet users.

 

The Zambia Information and Communications Technology Authority (ZICTA) is the regulatory agency for telecom and wireless product certifications. ZICTA does not require product samples or their own regulatory mark on the product, but they do require a local representative in-country. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. ZICTA certificates do not have an expiry date, and resubmittals are not required as long as the approved product is not modified. This agency has an English-language website (www.zicta.zm) which provides more information on their regulations and agency guidelines.

Zimbabwe

This country has experienced a long history of rule by despots, widespread violence, and rigged elections. Zimbabwe has 14 million residents, a GDP-PPP ranked at 132, and export commodities that include platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles and clothing. They rank 69th in the number of cell phones, and 82nd in the number of Internet users.

Zimbabwe has U.S. government sanctions in place for targeted individuals and organizations associated with the current regimes and those that are undermining democratic processes. [5] A full listing of the specific individuals and organizations can be found on the OFAC Specially Designated Nationals List webpage. [3]

These sanctions prohibit the trade or sell of certain dual-use technologies, which are products that perform either military or non-military applications. To determine if a product will require an U.S. Department of Commerce export license, first determine the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) for the product, and then access the Commerce Control List (CCL) posted in the Bureau of Industry and Security section of the Department of Commerce website. [4]

 

The Postal and Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Zimbabwe (POTRAZ) is the telecom agency for this country that certifies TTE and wireless products. This agency does not require an authorized representative, product samples, or agency product marks. Either FCC grants and test reports, or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. POTRAZ certificates do not expire, as long as the product is unchanged. The agency has an English-language website (www.potraz.gov.zw) with more information on the program requirements and agency activities.

Senegal

Senegal is one of the most stable democracies in Africa, and has a GDP-PPP ranking of 119, exporting agricultural products, petroleum products, and phosphates. They have almost 14 million inhabitants, and are ranked 73rd in the number of cell phones, and 74th in the number of Internet users.

 

L’Autorité de Régulation des Télécommunications et des Postes (ARTP), or the Authority for Regulation of Telecommunications and Posts, is the telecom authority of Senegal. Either the EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC, or the FCC grant and test reports, are accepted as proof of compliance for the importation and sell of products. The agency reserves the right to review any application that might interfere with protected frequencies or products that could cause harm to their telephone network. They do not ask for product samples when submitting an application for approval; however, a local representative is required.

There is an English-language version of the ARTP website available (www.artpsenegal.net), although the official language is French. This website allows access to the regulatory activities and publications for telecom and wireless products requiring certification and approvals. Certificates do not have an expiry date, but they do require an update submittal any time the product is substantially changed.

Rwanda

Rwanda experienced a horrific civil war and genocide in the 1990s. They held their first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. This 25th most populated African country of 12 million residents is rebuilding their infrastructure and economy, and have has a GDP-PPP rank of 144, with their major export commodities of coffee, tea, hides, and tin ore. They rank 104th in the number of cell phones, and 115th in the number of Internet users.

 

The Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA) is the telecom agency for this country. FCC grants and test reports, or EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC are accepted as proof of compliance for wireless and TTE products. RURA does not require product test samples, local representative, or regulatory marking of the product. The RURA website is available in English (www.rura.gov.rw). Certificates are valid for five years, and these are required be updated if the product is changed during this period. If the product will continue to be sold after this time, it should be re-submitted for a new certificate for an additional five years.

Guinea Republic

The Guinea Republic is a fledgling democracy that only had their first free and open election in 2010, and have a population of close to 12 million. They have has a GDP-PPP rank of 150, and possess the world’s largest reserves of both high-grade iron ore and bauxite, and also export gold, diamonds, and agricultural products. They rank 115th in the number of cell phones, and 157th in the number of Internet users.

 

The Autorité de Régularisation des Postes et Télécommunications (ARPT), or Authority for Regulation of Posts and Telecommunications, is the telecom agency for this country. FCC grants and test reports, or EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports and CE DOC are accepted as proof of compliance for wireless and TTE products. Product test samples and regulatory marking of the product are required, as well as a requirement to have an in-country local representative. The ARPT website is available in French (www.arpt.gov.gn). Certificates are valid for five years, and these are required be updated if the product is changed during this period. If the product will continue to be sold after this time, it should be re-submitted for a new certificate for an additional five years.

Chad (Republic of Tchad)

This country has experienced decades of internal conflict, but since 2008 has settled into a period of peace and stability. Chad is heavily dependent on oil revenues, accounting for around 60 percent of their exports, with agricultural products making up most of the rest, and has a GDP-PPP rank of 126. They have over 11 million inhabitants, and are ranked 119th in the number of cell phones, and 141st in the number of Internet users.

 

The L’Office Tchadien de Régulation des Télécommunications (OTRT), or the Chad Office of Telecom Regulation, is the government agency for telecom TTE and wireless product certifications. OTRT requires both product samples and a local representative, but they do not require regulatory product markings. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. OTRT certificates are valid for five years, as long as the product is not modified from the approved design. OTRT has a French-language website (www.otrt.td/fr) which provides more information on the regulations and certification requirements.

Tunisia

The beginnings of the Arab Spring movement started in Tunis, the capital of Tunisia, in December 2010. What started as protests had escalated to rioting by January 2011, which led to a national unity government being formed. A new constitution was ratified in January 2014, and Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014.

There have been some recent isolated violent attacks, but the new government is eager to unite the country and build up the economy in this country with almost 11 million residents. Tunisia is ranked 77th in the world, in terms of GDP-PPP, ranks 88th in the number of Internet users, and 68th in the number of cell phones, with both technologies being credited with helping the success of the Arab Spring citizen movement that reformed their government.

The Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche des Télécommunications (CERT), or Research and Studies Telecommunications Center is the government agency for telecom and wireless product certifications, for scoped wireless and telecom technologies. CERT requires product samples to be submitted, and also requires an authorized local representative; they do not, however, require product label markings. Both FCC grants and test reports, and EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. CERT certificates are valid for three years, as long as the product is not modified. If any critical components in product are changed, the updated product must go through a resubmittal process, with the understanding that the changed product cannot be imported until a new approval has been granted. CERT has a French-language website (www.cert.nat.tn) which provides more information on standards, testing, and product certification.

Somalia

Somalia has experienced internal and external conflict for many decades, but now has a democratically-elected government, and is in the process of rebuilding the country’s infrastructure and economy. Somalia has 10 million people, and their GDP-PPP is ranked at 169, with exports of agriculture products, charcoal, and scrap metal.

Unlike Sudan, Somalia is not currently subject to a wide-ranging U.S. sanctions program. However, there are prohibitions in place targeted at specified individuals and organizations associated with former regimes, as well as those groups that have committed violence, or pose a substantial risk of violence, with the intention of disrupting the peace and stability of the people and government of Somalia. [6] A complete listing of these targeted individuals and organizations can be found on the OFAC Specially Designated Nationals List webpage. [3]

These sanctions include restrictions on certain dual-use technologies, that is, devices that have both military and non-military applications. Information on determining if a specific commodity will require an export license from the U.S. Department of Commerce, can be found by first determining the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) for the product, and then by accessing the Commerce Control List (CCL) found in the Bureau of Industry and Security section of the Department of Commerce website. [4]

 

The Ministry of Posts and Communications (MPC) is the telecom authority for Somalia, for both wireless and TTE products. They accept either FCC test reports and grants, or EU R&TTE Directive compliance reports, as proof of compliance. Test samples and product regulatory marks are not required, but an authorized local representative for the manufacturer or importer of the product located in-country. Certificates issued by the MPC do not have an expiry date and remain valid if the product is unchanged. They have an English-language website (www.mopc.somaligov.net) with a limited amount of information.

Burundi

Burundi experienced ethnic violence from 1993 to 2005 that resulted in the deaths of over 200,000 people, with hundreds of thousands more being displaced and becoming refugees. A new constitution and elected government were implemented in 2005, but there are still many economic and political issues to resolve. Closing out our list as the 30th most populated African country with 10 million inhabitants, they have a GDP-PPP is ranking of 162, and an economy based on agriculture products. They rank 140th in the world for the number of cell phones, and 143rd in the number of Internet users.

 

The L’Agence de Régulation et de Contrôle des Télécommunications, (ARCT), or the Regulatory Board of Telecommunications and Control, is the government agency for telecom and wireless product certifications. ARCT does not require product samples or their own regulatory mark on the product, but they do require a local representative in-country. Either FCC grants and test reports or EU R&TTE test reports and CE DOCs are accepted as proof of compliance. ARCT certificates do not have an expiry date, and resubmittals are not required as long as the approved product is not modified. This agency has a French-language website (www.arct.gov.bi) which provides more information on their regulations and requirements.

Conclusion

In Part 2 of this article we have now traveled through the next twenty largest market countries in Africa, from Morocco with the 11th largest population, to Burundi with the 30th largest. While some countries are just beginning their path towards developing their economies and markets, others will provide special opportunities for the companies that do their research and find their own groups of customers. These citizens have seen the benefits that come from access to modern communications and ITE technologies that their Western neighbors enjoy, and for those businesses that can see the prospects for long term growth, many new markets are ready to present themselves.

It is important to keep in mind that the information contained in this article can become stale at a fast rate, so make sure to utilize your professional contacts and network to stay current on the latest requirements and compliance developments. One professional organization that can be a very reliable source is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), which has over thirty different sub-groups, including the EMC Society, the Product Safety Engineering Society, and the Consumer Electronics Society.

References

  1. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, (2015) The World Factbook index webpage. [Online]. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/index.html
  2. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, (2015) Cote d’Ivorie Sanctions webpage. [Online]. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/coted.aspx
  3. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, (2015) Specially Designated Nationals List webpage. [Online]. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/SDN-List/Pages/default.aspx
  4. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, (2015) Commerce Control List webpage. [Online]. http://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/regulations/commerce-control-list-ccl
  5. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, (2015) Zimbabwe Sanctions webpage. [Online]. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/zimb.aspx
  6. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, (2015) Somalia Sanctions webpage. [Online]. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/somalia.aspx

 

author maynard-markMark Maynard is a Director at SIEMIC, a global compliance testing and certification services firm. He also serves as the President-Elect for the IEEE Product Safety Engineering Society Board of Directors. He can be reached at mark.maynard @siemic.com.

About The Author

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

X