To provide in-depth coverage of ESD testing methods, in this article, we look at another type of ESD testing based on the “Human Body Model” (HBM) method of ESD testing.
This two-part article provides an overview of current automotive EMC standards and the intricacies of chamber testing automotive systems and components. In Part 1 of this article, we’ll provide details on the current editions of CISPR 25 and ISO 11452-2.
Product standards, such as IEC 62368‑1 for ITC equipment, struggle to keep up with technology changes, even when they are designed to be adaptable – such as this hazard-based standard. Unexpected consequences can develop with the introduction of disruptive technology that takes advantage of a seeming loophole in a standard and move forward without getting a full evaluation under the standard. Fault managed power systems, such as PoE, push the standard in getting proper evaluation. This paper is a case study including a detailed proposal as to how to address an issue such as this within the standard.
Manufacturers should understand product liability law and consider it pre-sale when they design and manufacture their products and after sale when they deal with potential product safety problems reported to them by consumers. Doing so will result in safer products and, if there is a lawsuit, a better defense.
This is the second of the three tutorial articles devoted to the frequency-domain analysis of a lossless transmission line. This article shows numerous methods of calculating the voltage, current, and input impedance at various locations on the transmission line, using the Circuit Model.
This article explores the waveform specifications called out in the IEC 61000-4-2 standard.
Although most modern RF amplifiers have a high voltage device rating against impedance mismatch, special care is needed to prevent impedance mismatch. To avoid impedance mismatch of the power amplifier, often an attenuator is also recommended to be connected between the output of the power amplifier and the flying probe.
High speed data interfaces like USB, HDBaseT™, HDMI, DVI, and DisplayPort require careful consideration to ensure reliable communication that is free of disruptive EMI. Of the many tools at the designer’s disposal like trace routing, termination and component placement, the common mode filter choke remains one of the most powerful. This application note discusses the benefits of using common mode chokes and reviews the performance characteristics associated with their proper application
AR offers a resource on the requirements of Radiated and Conducted Immunity for the military, automotive, and commercial (CE) testing markets.
When working with high-voltage test and measurement equipment, electrical and test engineers strive to achieve the most precise readings possible while also maintaining a safe work area. Typically, they employ external probes such as high-voltage dividers, but these instruments come with drawbacks and are prone to errors.